By Richard Towell
This booklet examines 5 valuable problems with moment language acquisition: move, staged improvement, cross-learner systematicity, incompleteness and variability. it's argued that the 1st 4 of the 5 crucial concerns obtain a extra passable account than has been formerly supplied via an procedure in accordance with common grammar. The 5th - variability - calls for an account in response to requisites of language use and language processing.
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The boy's book. He saw the/a boy. The boy shouted. The boy runs. The boy's hungry. The boy's going. Second, that there was no correlation between this order of emergence of grammatical morphology and the frequency with which each morpheme occurred in the speech addressed to the child learners. These findings lent considerable empirical support to an emerging view in linguistic theory at that time that a large part of human linguistic ability is innate, such that L1 acquisition and the eventual grammatical knowledge attained by native speakers is determined by abstract internal mental structures, and is considerably under-determined by the input.
This will create the impression of variability in an L2 learner's use of the L2. Styles towards the careful end of the continuum are more target-like than those towards the vernacular end, but they are internally less consistent. Development over time occurs because new forms may enter any one of the 'styles', and spread from there into the other 'styles'. Ellis (for example, 1992) suggests that learners have just one 'style' or grammar, but rules within this grammar may be variable. Initially, rules are constructed which have a unique output.
Previous page page_31 next page > < previous page page_32 next page > Page 32 Problems with the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis led researchers in the 1970s to consider the L2 learner's mental L2 grammar as an autonomous entity, and to investigate how it grows over time. Some of the early studies from this perspective were influenced by the work of Brown (1973) on the L1 acquisition of English grammatical morphology, and focused on L2 morphology. It was found that different groups of L1 speakers of different ages displayed 'accuracy orders' which were highly similar, suggesting to researchers that L2 morphology is acquired in a 'natural order'.
Approaches to Second Language Acquisition by Richard Towell