By Anatole V. Lyovin
Specified in scope, An creation to the Languages of the World introduces linguistics scholars to the diversity of world's languages. scholars will achieve familiarity with techniques equivalent to sound swap, lexical borrowing, diglossia, and language diffusion, and the wealthy number of linguistic constitution in be aware order, morphological forms, grammatical relatives, gender, inflection, and derivation. It bargains the chance to discover constructions of various and interesting languages in spite of no past acquaintance. A bankruptcy is dedicated to every of the world's continents, with in-depth analyses of consultant languages of Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania, and the US, and separate chapters disguise writing platforms and pidgins and creoles. each one bankruptcy comprises routines and suggestions for additional analyzing. New to this variation are 11 unique maps in addition to sections on signal languages and language dying and revitalization. For better clarity, uncomplicated language proof at the moment are prepared in tables, and language samples keep on with overseas criteria for phonetic transcription and word-by-word glossing.
There is an instructor's handbook to be had for registered teachers at the book's better half website.
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Extra resources for An introduction to the languages of the world
1. The labeled ovals refer to languages, and the lines refer to direction of descent. In linguistics, there is a tradition of having time flow from the top of the page downward, so the line from Old English to Middle English means that Old English is the parent of Middle English, or, equivalently, that Middle English is the daughter of Old English. We use the words parent and daughter only when talking about adjacent languages connected by one line. As in the previous paragraph, we use the words ancestor and descendant to refer to the same concepts transitively.
Knowing that one rule, Middle English words like [huːs], [nuː], and [uːt] become instantly recognizable as the precursors of house, now, and out, respectively. Sound changes do not help at all in connecting Old Japanese vocabulary with that of Old English. When discussing relations between older and newer forms of a language, it is helpful to distinguish between innovations and retentions. An innovation is the product of a change; a retention is the ancestral state without any change. For example, some dialects in the north of England didn’t participate in the sound change of [uː] > [aʊ].
Within a word, morphemes are not aligned as such, but you can easily see which explanation goes with which morpheme, because there is one explanation 17 18 Classification of Languages per morpheme, with matching hyphens. Generally speaking, root morphemes are expressed by an equivalent English word. Morphemes that express a more functional meaning, such as affixes, are described rather than translated. Description is done by writing standard abbreviations in small capital letters. Abbreviations will be defined where introduced for the first time, but see also the complete list of abbreviations at the front of this book.
An introduction to the languages of the world by Anatole V. Lyovin