By John Bicknell
The yr 1844 observed a momentous presidential election, spiritual turmoil, westward growth, and various different interwoven occasions that profoundly affected the U.S. as a country. writer and journalist John Bicknell info those compelling occasions during this strange historical past ebook. He explains how the election of James okay. Polk guaranteed the growth that introduced Texas, California, and Oregon into the union. This came about amidst anti-Mormon and anti-Catholic violence, the idea within the forthcoming moment coming of Christ, the homicide of Joseph Smith, Charles Goodyear’s patenting of vulcanized rubber, the near-death of President John Tyler in a freak naval explosion, and masses extra. All of those components illustrate the competing visions of the yank destiny and the way Polk’s victory cemented the imaginative and prescient of a continental state.
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Extra info for America 1844: Religious Fervor, Westward Expansion, and the Presidential Election That Transformed the Nation
In April of that year, Allen Dulles, then CIA deputy director for covert operations, met with military intelligence chiefs to seek their assistance in launching Project Artichoke. ” In this mobilization, the CIA employed a combination of ﬁnancial incentives and collegial manipulation by a few leading researchers to eﬀect a subtle redirection of the nascent cognitive science community. This alliance between the intelligence and science would prove seminal. Through a seemingly erratic yet systematic process, the CIA and its contract researchers produced a distinctively American approach to psychological torture grounded in a scientiﬁc understanding of the sensory pathways to human consciousness.
B. Retarding and advancing clocks. C. Serving meals at odd times. D. Disrupting sleep schedules. E. ” But now a penciled insert warned: “It is illegal and against policy to use them to produce regression. ” Oﬀering visual conﬁrmation of this continuity, the detainees at Guantanamo’s Camp X-Ray in 2002 wore prison suits with goggles, gloves, and ear muﬀs that bear a striking resemblance to equipment Dr. Hebb used to test sensory deprivation on student volunteers at McGill University in 1952. When the Cold War came to a close in 1990, Washington rescinded its torture training and resumed its advocacy of human rights.
Unless such a formal inquiry is convened to investigate this history of coercive interrogation and begin to break the cycle of secrecy, exposé, and impunity, we are likely in a few years to ﬁnd ourselves once again facing another major torture scandal arising from some newly discovered dungeon in Asia, Africa, or the Middle East. When that happens, the world will not have forgotten those photos from Abu Ghraib. The damage to this country’s international standing will likely be nothing short of devastating.
America 1844: Religious Fervor, Westward Expansion, and the Presidential Election That Transformed the Nation by John Bicknell