By L. Ho, R. van Leeuwen, P. T. V. M. de Jong, J. R. Vingerling, C. C. W. Klaver (auth.), Frank G. Holz, Daniel Pauleikhoff, Richard F. Spaide, Alan C. Bird (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3642221068

ISBN-13: 9783642221064

ISBN-10: 3642221076

ISBN-13: 9783642221071

Age-related macular degeneration is the commonest reason for the lack of significant imaginative and prescient past the age of fifty in business countries. Triplication of the variety of affected sufferers is anticipated over the following 25 years. specially over the past years the traditional of information relating to etiology, possibility components, diagnostics and treatment of this retina sickness has considerably grown – this can be coated during this up to date multi-authored paintings. except epidemiologically and genetically pointed out hazard elements either a few of the pathophysiological elements together with the position of the supplement method and scientific manifestations together with OCT and angiographic features are essentially represented. moreover, different healing methods are awarded and mentioned, together with confirmed approaches similar to intravitreal anti-VEGF remedy and seeing-aid structures, as well as the newest and upcoming equipment within the region of pharmacology. the amount is well-illustrated and tables and summaries entire the presentation.

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6%), which may have contributed to the nonsignificant finding in Asians [190, 194]. 5% vs. 9%). In the Chinese study, e2-carriership correlated with a minor risk-increasing trend, whereas in the Japanese study, it associated with a risk-lowering trend, none statistically significant. A recent study identified common haplotypes, which contained the e-alleles and four additional SNPs (rs405509 – rs440446 – rs769449 – rs769450 – e-alleles) and covered the entire APOE gene and its cis-regulatory region [197].

89) per log(year) [266]. Others reported that persons who stopped smoking more than 20 years earlier were not at increased risk of the blinding stages of AMD [267, 268]. Seddon et al. 3 years [148]. 2 Antioxidants The only protective factors for AMD known to date are antioxidants. AREDS showed that a combination of zinc, b-carotene, and vitamins C, and E reduced the risk of progression from intermediate to advanced AMD by 25% [34]. The RS found that an above-median intake of these nutrients was associated with a 35% lower risk of incident AMD [269].

5 1 2 5 b Study or Subgroup Rotterdam Study Gold et al. McKay et al. Richardson et al. 5 1 2 5 10 Fig. 6 (a) Allele-based meta-analysis of association studies investigating Complement Factor B R32Q and risk of late AMD. (b) Allele-based meta-analysis of all currently available association studies investigating Complement Factor B L9H and risk of late AMD age-related macular degeneration; CI, confidence interval; IV, inverse variance; n, number of risk alleles; N, total number of alleles; Random, random effects model.

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Age-related Macular Degeneration by L. Ho, R. van Leeuwen, P. T. V. M. de Jong, J. R. Vingerling, C. C. W. Klaver (auth.), Frank G. Holz, Daniel Pauleikhoff, Richard F. Spaide, Alan C. Bird (eds.)

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