By Wayne H. Bowen, José E. Alvarez
Within the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Spain used to be a key participant within the army conflagrations that created glossy Europe. From the Napoleonic Wars, in the course of the costume practice session for global battle II that used to be the Spanish Civil struggle, to the bleak fight opposed to terrorism at the present time, the army background of recent Spain has either formed and mirrored better forces past its borders.This quantity lines the process Spanish army historical past, basically through the twentieth century. bankruptcy 1 offers the root for the position of the Spanish military at domestic (the struggle of Independence [Napoleonic War], the Carlist Wars, and pronunciamientos), in a foreign country (Morocco, 1859-60), and as an tool for Liberal reforms in Spain. bankruptcy 2 covers the interval following the Spanish-American conflict because the military redirected its concentration to the Spanish Protectorate in northern Morocco. This bankruptcy covers the Rif uprising (1921-27), the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923-30) and concludes with the top of the monarchy and the institution of the 2d Republic in 1931. Chapters three and four current the 2 armies of the Spanish Civil conflict, in addition to their courting to the warring factions of Nationalists and Republicans. bankruptcy five appears to be like on the Spanish military in the course of international warfare II at the japanese entrance (Russia), in its in another country colonies, in addition to in Spain. De-colonialism is roofed in bankruptcy 6 as Spain, following the lead of the opposite eu powers, started to shed itself of its African empire. bankruptcy eight charts Spain's integration into the Western security neighborhood within the Fifties, its club in NATO, and its participation in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions within the Balkans and the center East. bankruptcy nine specializes in Spain's fight opposed to terrorism, either the family Basques of ETA (Fatherland and Liberty) and the more recent clash opposed to al-Qaeda and radical Islamic fundamentalism.
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Additional info for A Military History of Modern Spain: From the Napoleonic Era to the International War on Terror (Praeger Security International)
They were poorly trained, equipped, and led. 10 With the arrival of thousands of fresh troops in Melilla during 1909–10, Spanish forces were able to move from Melilla and occupied an enclave that stretched from Cape Tres Forcas to the southern shore of Mar Chica, or about 10 kilometers into the Moroccan interior. 11 However, these African adventures were extremely costly in lives and resources. Militarily speaking, the 1909 and subsequent campaigns in northeast Morocco taught the Spanish two lessons.
The guerrillas, on the other hand, continued to play a key role in sapping Napoleon’s forces of their military strength, even if some historians argue that their overall role in defeating the French was minor compared to that of Wellington’s army. In fact, the British would not have fared nearly so well if the French had not had to deal with the horrendous insurgency problem. 18 In the Spanish Army’s next major conflict, the First Carlist War (1833– 40), guerrillas would be opponents rather than allies, marking the beginning of a recurring pattern of counterinsurgencies that the army would wage throughout the century.
It was top heavy, with too many officers for so few troops. It was composed of 499 generals, 578 colonels, and more than 23,000 other officers for an army that numbered around 80,000 men. Put another way, the Army had 25,000 officers for only 38 A Military History of Modern Spain 80,000 men, or one officer for every five soldiers. 4 Reforming the Army would be challenging as the officer corps resisted any attempts by the government to change their established system. In turn, the Army also represented the greatest threat to the stability and authority of any restoration government.
A Military History of Modern Spain: From the Napoleonic Era to the International War on Terror (Praeger Security International) by Wayne H. Bowen, José E. Alvarez