By Owen Chadwick
May possibly a Pope ever consent to be the topic of a political strength? Chadwick provides an research of the reasons and effects of the tip of the historical Papal kingdom, and the mental pressures upon previous Rome because it got here less than assault from the Italian Risorgimento; and never purely from Italy, yet from liberal pursuits in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, in addition to Tsarist Russia because it oppressed its Polish topics. If a united Italy used to be to be completed, the nation must disappear. those pressures triggered Popes to withstand "the international" instead of to aim to persuade it, to make the Vatican extra of a sanctuary at the back of excessive partitions, and to evangelise the extra otherworldly facets of Catholic religion. even as they met new ethical calls for: the rights of the laborer in undefined, divorce, and toleration--which they can confront as the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their church buildings. hence, Chadwick issues out, Catholic authority can be way more centralized in Rome.
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Additional resources for A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church)
This clamour was important in the growing cleavage of France into clerical and anticlerical. The historian Michelet, who had academic •weight, gave a course on the history of the Jesuits which proved how historians use history for prejudiced ends. Government was asked to apply the old law which made Jesuits illegal. The government behaved wisely, and asked its ambassador in Rome, Pellegrino Rossi, to persuade Gregory XVI that it was better to withdraw the Jesuits by his command than to suffer them dissolved by the State.
Its burden •was this: human beings were born free and equal in a Garden of Eden. But they fell, and so made themselves 12 13 La Condamnation de Lamennais, 391. Ibid. 430—i. Rennes to the Pope, 14 Dec. 1833, ibid. 437-8; Maurice de Guerin to his sister, CEuvres, ed. H. Clouard (Paris, 1930), ii. H4ff. 14 28 Gregory XVI governments to keep sin in handcuffs, or sinners seized power to pretend that they kept order but really to enjoy themselves in comfort and idleness, and so the world is full of oppression and injustice; and only Christ can save us by bringing the true brotherhood of humanity; it is upon the heart of Christ that the sick peoples revive, and that the oppressed peoples receive strength to free themselves; and this is not achieved by laws, nearly all of which are bad, nor by governments which are tyrannical much of the time, and which ban workers from even trying to combine to get more just conditions, and which kill people who think differently from themselves—but by us the people; and we the people cry out to Thee, Lord, out of the depths of our misery, like a shipwrecked crew on a barren coast, or like a wounded bird hunted by a dog, or like Christ crying upon the cross, why hast thou forsaken me?
Lecanuet, Montalembert (Paris, 1895-1912), i. 286-7. 9 Lamennais to Charles de Coux, Con. gen. v. ; La Condamnation de Lamennais, 144; cf. Con. gen. v. 83, to Coriolis. Gregory XVI 23 was 'appalled' (said the secret Austrian informant) and at last accepted that nothing was to be gained from this pope and that the best he could hope for was silence. He half-exempted the Pope on the supposition that this anti-Polish brief was a payment forced out of him as a fee for the military protection of the Papal States.
A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church) by Owen Chadwick